How to Substitute Eggs: 10 Easy Vegan Swaps for Every Recipe


In the first edition of Go Dairy Free: The Guide and Cookbook, I had an egg substitution guide. But in the 2nd edition, I added an egg-free option for every recipe. So the guide on how to substitute eggs was no longer needed in the book.

However, I still want to share this information with you in a quick online resource. Egg substitute ideas are helpful to have on hand when you are dealing with an egg allergy (a relatively common milk allergy partner), following a vegan diet, or have run out of eggs!

Understanding Eggs

If you confuse eggs with dairy, you’re not alone! See this post for a full explanation: Are Eggs Dairy?

Why Eggs Are Used

Eggs are a bit of a wonder food when it comes baking and cooking. They provide all of the following to recipes:

  • Binding: Those gelatinous egg whites are full of protein that helps bind ingredients together and prevent crumbling  once cooked.
  • Leavening: The protein in egg whites also provides structure, helping baked goods to rise and hold their shape. The whites can also be whipped to give meringues and angel food cake volume with a light texture.
  • Emulsification: Egg whites do a lot of the heavy lifting, but egg yolks aid in tenderness and help to emulsify fat into the recipe. The benefits of egg yolks are even more noticeable at higher altitudes, where fat can have a tendency to separate in baking.
  • Moisture: Eggs combine with other ingredients in a recipe to add and “suspend” moisture, which prevents the finished product from becoming too dense or “wet.”
  • Browning: You might notice that some vegan baked goods appear paler than ones baked with eggs. Eggs aid in the browning process when exposed to heat, and provide that nice golden finish. Many believe this browning ability also enhances the taste.
  • Sealing and Coating: Eggs can be whisked with a little liquid and brushed on before baking to help seal in moisture. The egg yolk also help enhance the color once baked, and the egg white adds shine.

The Standard Size of an Egg

Most recipes that call for eggs are referring to large eggs. One large egg contains a little over 3 tablespoons of liquid: about 2 tablespoons of egg white and about 1 tablespoon of egg yolk.

One medium egg has just under 3 tablespoons of liquid, and one extra-large egg has roughly 4 tablespoons (1/4 cup) of liquid.

How to Substitute Eggs - 10 Easy Swaps #plantbased #vegan #eggreplacer

10 Easy Ways to Substitute Eggs

1) Store-Bought Egg Replacer Powder

There’s no shame in buying a powdered egg replacer from the store. They’re shelf-stable, and at the ready whenever needed. Plus, they’ve been specifically formulated to work as an egg substitute in many recipes.

  • How to Make: Follow the directions on the package. It usually just involves whisking in some water.
  • Best For: Cake, Muffins, Quick Bread, Cookies, Bars, Pancakes, and Waffles that do not use a high ratio of eggs (usually 1 or 2 eggs per standard-sized recipe). Many brands also bind well in Meatballs, Veggie Burgers, and Fritters. These won’t whip like egg whites. However, a couple brands (noted below) can reportedly be scrambled.

Brands for Baking and Binding Only: These are not personal recommendations, but a round-up of the options. To the best of my knowledge, all of these products are dairy-free and vegan.

Brands for Baking, Binding, or Scrambling: These are not personal recommendations, but a round-up of the options. To the best of my knowledge, all of these products are dairy-free and vegan.

2) Aquafaba

The name might sound fancy, but aquafaba is plain old “bean water.” More specifically, it’s the thick, viscous liquid that you typically drain from a can of beans. It also forms when you cook beans from dried at home. Nonetheless, it is such a cool way to substitute eggs that I’ve created a dedicated aquafaba post.

  • How to Make: It can be used straight in several applications, or whipped like egg whites. See my Complete Guide to Aquafaba for step by step photos and FAQs. In general, use 3 tablespoons aquafaba per 1 large egg, and 2 tablespoons aquafaba per 1 large egg white.
  • Best For: Cake, Muffins, Quick Bread, Cookies, Brownies, Bars, Pancakes, Waffles, Pies, Meringues, Marshmallows, Egg Wash, Meatballs, Veggie Burgers, and Fritters.

Aquafaba - Your Complete Guide to this Vegan Substitute with FAQs, Step by Step Pictures, and More

3) Tofu

Tofu is a fairly versatile egg substitute that offers an “eggy” taste and texture, right from the package. Silken tofu blends into a smooth puree that works in dense sweet and savory baked goods. Regular tofu can be mashed for a chopped egg consistency.

  • How to Make: Puree firm silken tofu until smooth. Use 3 tablespoons of the puree per 1 egg in baking. You can optionally add 1/8 teaspoon baking powder per egg replaced to add a little lift. For scrambles and egg salad, mash firm or extra-firm tofu and use a scant 1/4 cup per 1 egg in your recipe.
  • Best For: Dense Cakes, Brownies, Custard, Pies, Quiche, Egg Salad, and Scrambles.

4) Fruit or Vegetable Puree

Applesauce, mashed banana, and pumpkin puree work well when you want to substitute eggs in sweet baked goods and breakfast treats. While mashed potatoes, sweet potatoes, or avocado are made for savory burgers or fritters. But always keep the flavor profile in mind when picking your fruit or vegetable. Also, these usually add nice moisture, but can produce dense results. For that reason, I often add a little extra baking powder to quick breads and muffins.

  • How to Make: Use 3 to 4 tablespoons (1/4 cup) of mash or puree per 1 large egg. I usually start with 3 tablespoons and add a little more if the batter looks too dry or stiff. You can optionally add 1/8 teaspoon baking powder per egg replaced in quick breads or muffins to add a little lift.
  • Best For: Quick Bread, Muffins, Cookies, Pancakes, Waffles, Brownies, Bars, Burgers, or Fritters where the fruit flavor suits.

5) Flaxseed

Flaxseed has a wholesome taste that suits heartier baked goods, such as pancakes, oatmeal cookies, and bran muffins. You can purchase whole flax seeds and grind them fresh in a spice grinder. Or you can buy pre-ground flaxseed (flax meal) and store it in the refrigerator or freezer for optimal freshness.

  • How to Make: Whisk together or blend 3 tablespoons water with 1 tablespoon ground flaxseed. Let it sit and gel for 5 minutes, and then use it to replace 1 egg in hearty baked goods. You can optionally add 1/8 teaspoon baking powder per egg replaced in quick breads or muffins to add a little lift.
  • Best For: Hearty Quick Bread, Muffins, Cookies, Pancakes, Waffles, or Bars.

6) Chia Seeds

Chia seeds are convenient and easy. They are similar to flax seeds in performance, but they have a slightly better “gel” and don’t taste quite as hearty. Chia seeds don’t need to be ground, they soften in water and as they bake. However, you will see those little seeds in your finished product. Two things can help with this: use white chia seeds (which are actually tan in color) and/or blend the chia seeds.

  • How to Make: Whisk together or blend 3 tablespoons water with 1 tablespoon chia seeds (white or black). Let it sit and gel for 5 minutes, and then use it to replace 1 egg in hearty baked goods. You can optionally add 1/8 teaspoon baking powder per egg replaced in quick breads or muffins to add a little lift.
  • Best For: Quick Bread, Muffins, Cookies, Pancakes, Waffles, Brownies, or Bars.

7) Vinegar + Baking Soda

This combination provides lift, but not structure, so it is best for fluffy baked goods that aren’t relying heavily on eggs to hold together. I don’t recommend using this to substitute eggs at higher altitude baking (above 3000 feet). Also use caution if your recipe already calls for quite a bit of leavener. Too much lift can cause your baked goods to rapidly rise and then deflate!

  • How to Make: Add 1 tablespoon white vinegar to the wet ingredients in your recipe and 1 teaspoon baking soda to the dry ingredients in your recipe. This amount can be swapped in for 1 or 2 eggs, but you might need to whisk in a little bit of water if your batter is too thick. In general, vegan batter should be just a little thicker than batter with eggs. Other types of vinegar will work, but make sure they fit the flavor profile of your recipe.
  • Best For: Cakes, Cupcakes, Muffins, Quick Breads, or Pancakes.

8) Starch

Starch is a lighter option for adding a touch of binding power to more delicate baked goods. Cornstarch and tapioca starch tend to work best in baked goods, but arrowroot or potato starch could also be used.

  • How to Make: Whisk 1 tablespoon starch with 3 tablespoons cold water until smooth, and then use it to replace 1 large egg. You can optionally add 1/8 teaspoon baking powder per egg replaced to add a little lift.
  • Best For: Cakes, Cupcakes, Muffins, Quick Breads, Pies, or Pancakes.

9) Dairy-Free Yogurt

This is one of my favorite egg substitutes for quick breads and cookies. Plain dairy-free yogurt tends to have a nice smooth consistency, and it will react with recipes containing baking soda to provide a little extra lift. It also has a more delicate flavor than seeds.

  • How to Make: Use 3 tablespoons of plain, unsweetened, dairy-free yogurt per 1 large egg in baking. If your recipe doesn’t use any baking soda, you can optionally add a pinch of baking soda or 1/8 teaspoon baking powder with the dry ingredients per egg replaced.
  • Best For: Cake, Cupcakes, Quick Bread, Muffins, Cookies, Pancakes, Waffles, Brownies, Bars, or Fritters.

10) Agar Powder

Gelatin is sometimes used to substitute eggs, but agar is gelatin’s vegan cousin. It’s extracted from seaweed, and provides equally good binding power.

  • How to Make: For 1 egg white, dissolve 1 tablespoon agar powder in 1 tablespoon hot water. Whip it, refrigerate until cold, and whip it again before using. For 1 egg, whisk in 2 more tablespoons of warm water.
  • Best For: Bars, Brownies, Pancakes, Waffles, Pies, Meatballs, Veggie Burgers, and Fritters.

Bonus: Egg Wash Substitute

You can skip the egg wash, but brushing on a liquid sweetener or oil will aid in browning and help give your baked good a bit of shine. And, as mentioned above, aquafaba works well as an egg white wash.

For Hundreds of Dairy-Free Egg-Free Recipes, Get My Cookbooks:

Dairy-Free Books - Guide and Cookbooks from the best-selling dairy-free author, Alisa Fleming

About Author

Alisa is the founder of, Food Editor for Allergic Living magazine, and author of the best-selling dairy-free book, Go Dairy Free: The Guide and Cookbook for Milk Allergies, Lactose Intolerance, and Casein-Free Living, and the new cookbook, Eat Dairy Free: Your Essential Cookbook for Everyday Meals, Snacks, and Sweets. Alisa is also a professional recipe creator and product ambassador for the natural food industry.


  1. I’ve always been a fan of meat, but my mother is a vegan.
    Your recipe really helped me a lot, easy to understand and so inspired, thanks so much, Alisa.

  2. I never knew how many egg substitutes there were! Daughter has an egg allergy and I have used flax seed and chia seeds for most baked goods. I am having some trouble trying to figure out what to do for a baked cheesecake. What should I use in place of the eggs in one? I thought maybe cashew butter since I have seen it used extensively in vegan cheesecakes, but am worried it won’t turn out.

    • It really depends on the recipe, how many eggs are used, and what type of result you are looking for. Cashew butter will add richness and density, but doesn’t add other properties of eggs. You can try aquafaba. That’s going to be the closest for baking and the most like egg whites. I’m assuming that your recipe already has quite a bit of richness, and that you are looking more for the “fluffiness” factor of eggs that they provide in cheesecakes.

  3. Alexis Azzarito on

    My goodness! You are amazingly clear and considerate with your comments and explanations. Outstanding,Thank you

  4. I’m very sensitive to eggs, both the whites and yolks. What would you recommend to replace the eggs in lemon bars?

  5. Lois Wilkinson on

    I am trying to convert a cookie receipt that came from my great great grandmother to vegan . it calls for 1 cup lard which I changed to crisco sticks it also calls for 3 eggs beaten well with 4 tablespoons water added to eggs. not sure what to use in place of eggs. My nephew is now vegan and loves these cookies. Please help Thanks

    • It really just depends on what you have on hand and which egg replacer you feel most comfortable with. With each one, I’ve noted what they are best for, and many of them work in cookies. If it is a regular batch recipe, that is a lot of eggs, so I would probably use aquafaba (chickpea canned liquid) to be on the safe side. But one of the other options might work well for you.

  6. Jennifer Freeman on

    I’ve never been a fan of using raw eggs in a dessert that you don’t bake. I have a chocolate mousse cake recipe that is like this. I could replace the egg whites with the aquafaba, but it also requires egg yolks mixed with melted chocolate. What could I substitute for this part of the recipe?

    • It really depends on how egg dependent the mousse is. The yolk product noted above and possibly “Just Egg” will work, but I haven’t tested either myself in mousse or pudding. If it is only one yolk, you can omit it, or substitute up to 1/4 cup of a creamy ingredient, like coconut milk (full fat). Again, it’s hard to say without seeing the recipe.

  7. Melanie Leadley on

    What would you suggest to replace 2 egg yolks in a steamed Christmas pudding? There is no flour in the recipe, just dried fruit and ground almonds, nuts and orange juice. Great article, thank you.

    • I’ve never made a steamed Christmas pudding, let alone a flourless one, so I’m not sure what the egg yolks provide to the recipe. 2 egg yolks would be equivalent to about 2 tablespoons. You can use 2 tablespoons aquafaba, to help with the stability, or perhaps a little gelatin (or agar for vegan) with water. Since it is made with ground almonds, which release oils, I wouldn’t think the fat in the egg yolks would be as essential. It’s more about emulsification.

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  9. So much useful and diverse information in this article! I’m not egg allergy or in any diet but maybe I will need them in the future or for my articles 🙂 Thanks for sharing!
    – Natalie Ellis

  10. I can have egg yolks, can I mix any of these as a substitute for egg whites? I want to mix with yolks. I just can’t have egg whites. This was a great article

    • I would recommend using the ones that I’ve specified for egg whites if your recipe calls for egg whites. If not, then most of these should work (2 tablespoons per egg white), but I would use the one that fits the type of recipe.

  11. What a great, comprehensive list. I usually make a flax egg, but I’m going to try adding dairy free yogurt as well. Baking powder is a good help too.

  12. This is the most comprehensive guide to vegan egg substitutes I’ve ever read. I really had no idea there were so many, or how to choose the appropriate substitute. Thanks so much for this!

  13. This guide is so helpful! Especially the part about how much liquid is in an egg. I always want to play around with egg-free cooking/baking but never know where to start. Thank you for this.

  14. Pingback: Aquafaba: Your Guide to this Vegan Egg Substitute (Pictures!)

  15. For 3 eggs, our go to is 1/4c vetetable oil, 1/4c water, 1T baking powder. Combine in a sealed container and shake for 15 seconds. It foams up and you dump into just like other liquids. Great for pancakes, waffles, etc.

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